Relationship of honeybee and flowers
Flowers and honeybees - Bees and flowers have a mutualistic relationship as well. Honeybees get the nectar and pollen as a food by traveling between flowers. The bee brings pollen from one plant to another, resulting in pollination.
Pollination is the process of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma.
The goal of every living organism, including plants, is to create offspring for the next generation. One of the ways that plants can produce offspring is by making seeds. Seeds contain the genetic information to produce a new plant.
Flowers are reproductive organs of plants. The basic parts of the flower are shown in the diagram below.
Seeds can only be produced when pollen is transferred between flowers of the same species, they do not interbreed with members of other species.
The story of pollination may be summed up as getting the right pollen to the right place at right time.
Pollination is not a deliberate behavior but an accidental one performed by the insect as they collect food from flowers. Why do pollinators visit flowers?
Insect and other animal pollinators obtain food in the form of energy-rich nectar and/or protein-rich pollen, from the flowers they visit and in return, the flowers receive the services of pollinators carrying pollen from one flower to another.
While food is often a sufficient lure for pollinators, flowering plants also attract pollinators using a combination of petal shapes, scents, and colors.
On the basis of pollination, there is two type of plant.Pollen from the anthers of one flower is deposited on the stigma of other flowers by the process of pollination. 0nce on the stigma, pollen may germinate, which means that a pollen tube forms on the sticky surface of the stigma and grows down into the ovule of the plant. Fertilization takes place when pollen anther (male organ) unites with female ovule.
Self-pollinated plant and cross-pollinated plant.
If the transfer of pollen takes place in same blooms or another bloom on the same plant, it’s called self-pollination.Self-pollinating species can reproduce even if insect pollinators are not present. However, reproduction through self-pollination reduces genetic diversity.
To promote cross-pollination and increase genetic diversity, plants have evolved a wide variety of sexual strategies to attract pollinators and spread pollen from one flower to another of the same species.
If the transfer of pollen takes place in different plant blooms of same species, it’s called cross-pollination.
Anthers open on one flower and a vector (insects, wind, or animals) moves pollen to the stigma of another flower. Pollinators may visit several flowers on one plant or may visit several flowers of the same species on a few different plants. The most important and efficient carrier of pollen from the anther to stigma is the honey bee. An understanding of the activity of honeybee is essential if the best return is to be obtained in fruit production.
There are many examples of specialized plant and pollinator relationships in which flowers and insects have adapted to one another to accomplish mutually beneficial goals. These are a solid example of co-evolution.
Some orchids have evolved ingenious ways to lure pollinators by developing flowers that appear to be female insects. Using sight and/or scent, these flowers resemble female insects so convincingly that males of the same species will attempt to copulate with the flower, inadvertently picking up pollen before visiting another female-mimicking flower.